Erik Satie (1866–1925)


First recording and performance analysis of the entire 28-hour performance
(project description and data)


Welcome to the Vexations recording homepage. All researchers are invited to use the data presented in this homepage for further analysis. However, by downloading you accept (a) that the copyright of the data is owned by Reinhard Kopiez and (b) an acknowledgment of the source of data and owner of copyright in intended publications must be mentioned. Thank you.

Author contact: reinhard.kopiez(at)


Short project description:

The main aim of this project was to develop adequate methods for the performance analysis of long-term musical performances.
The first recording of a continuous performance of Satie's composition 'Vexations' was used as an example. This composition comprises one theme and two variations. It has to be repeated 840 times in a very slow tempo which results in a total performance duration of roughly 28 hours. Performance analysis was based on EEG data, MIDI and acoustical data. Linear as well as non-linear methods were applied to analyze changes in loudness and tempo.

The performance took place in May 2000, in Dresden, Germany. The pianist was Armin Fuchs (Würzburg, Germany).

Sound example of "Vexations" in MIDI-format or in 'human' performance" (MP3 format, 2 MB).


Current publications:

Researcher group:


Currently available data and files:


Additional information

Website containing information related to Satie and his work:

Extensive documentary of the Vexations project on YouTube

Broadcast report on German television 3sat (May 2000, in German)

Is playing the piano for 28 hours harmful? The Guardian (Marc Abrahams), 29 November 2010


The project has been sponsored by

Hanover University of Music, Drama and Media

Yamaha Europe

Culture foundation of Saxony